What is kidney failure?
Kidney failure occurs when damage results in loss of normal kidney function. It may also be called end stage renal disease (ESRD). There are 2 types of kidney failure — acute and chronic.
- Acute kidney failure starts abruptly. It can sometimes be reversed.
- Chronic kidney failure progresses slowly over at least 3 months. It can lead to permanent kidney failure.
What causes kidney failure?
Conditions that may lead to acute or chronic kidney failure may include:
Acute kidney failure
- Rhabdomyolysis, kidney damage that can occur from muscle breakdown due to severe dehydration, infection, or other causes
- Decreased blood flow to the kidneys from blood loss or shock
- A blockage along the urinary tract
- Hemolytic uremic syndrome, blockage of the small vessels in the kidney, often caused by an E. Coli infection
- Infection of certain medications that may be toxic to the kidneys
- Glomerulonephritis, inflammation of the tiny units within the kidney where blood is cleaned, impair the kidney’s ability to filter urine
- Any condition that impairs the flow of oxygen and blood to the kidneys, such as heart attack
Chronic kidney failure
- Diabetic nephropathy, kidney damage due to high blood sugar
- High blood pressure
- Lupus, an immune system disease
- Urinary track blockage
- Alport syndrome, a genetic disorder
- Nephrotic syndrome, a condition that leads to too much protein in the urine
- Polycystic kidney disease, a genetic disorder that causes fluid-filled cysts in the kidneys
- Cystinosis, a genetic problem in which the amino acid builds up within the cells in the kidneys
- Interstitial nephritis or pyelonephritis, inflammation of the small structures in the kidney
What are the symptoms of kidney failure?
The symptoms for acute and chronic renal failure may be different. These are the most common.
Acute (Symptoms depend on the underlying cause.)
- Poor appetite
- Severe vomiting
- Abdominal pain
- Back pain
- Muscle cramps
- No urine output or high urine output
- Pale skin
- Inflammation of the eye
- Poor appetite
- Bone pain
- Dry skin
- Fatigue with light activity
- Muscle cramps
- High urine output or no urine output
- Urinary incontinence
- Pale skin
- Bad breath
- Hearing problems
- Poor muscle tone
- Change in mental alertness
- Metallic taste in mouth
The symptoms of acute and chronic kidney failure may look like other health problems. Always consult your health care provider for a diagnosis. You may be referred to a kidney specialist known as a nephrologist.
How is kidney failure diagnosed?
Your doctor will review your medical history and do a physical exam. Other tests may include:
Blood tests. Blood tests will check blood cell counts, electrolyte levels, and kidney function
Renal ultrasound. In this test, a transducer is passed over the kidney sending sound waves that bounce off the kidney. Pictures are sent to a video screen. The test is use to check the size and shape of the kidney, and to find a mass, kidney stone, cyst, or other blockage or problems.
Kidney biopsy. This is the removal of tissue samples (with a needle or during surgery) from the body for exam under a microscope. It’s done to see if cancer or other abnormal cells are present.
Computed tomography scan (also called a CT or CAT scan). An imaging test that uses X-rays and a computer to make horizontal, or axial, images (often called slices) of the body. A CT scan shows detailed images of any part of the body, including the kidneys. CT scans are more detailed than general X-rays. Contrast CT usually cannot be done when there is kidney failure.
What is the treatment for acute and chronic kidney failure?
Your health care provider will figure out the best treatment based on:
- How old you are
- Your overall health and medical history
- How sick you are
- How well you can handle specific medications, procedures, or therapies
- How long the condition is expected to last
- Your opinion or preference
Treatment may include hospitalization and:
- Intravenous (IV) fluids
- Diuretic therapy ( medications to increase urine output)
- Closely watching electrolytes such as potassium, sodium, and calcium and heart rhythm, as the heart muscle is at risk for changes in these electrolytes
- Medications (to control blood pressure)
- Specific diet needs
In some cases, you can have electrolyte problems and toxic levels of waste products normally removed by the kidneys. You may also develop fluid overload. Dialysis may be needed in these cases.
Treatment of chronic kidney failure depends on the how much kidney function you still have.
Dialysis is used to treat both acute and chronic kidney failure. It involves removing waste substances and fluid from the blood that are normally removed by the kidneys. Dialysis may also be used for people who have been exposed to or ingested toxic substances. In this case, dialysis is used to prevent kidney failure. There are two types of dialysis; peritoneal and hemodialysis.
Peritoneal dialysis is done by surgically placing a soft, hollow tube, called a catheter, into the lower abdomen near the navel. A solution called dialysate is passed through the tube into the peritoneal cavity. This is the space in the abdomen that houses the organs. It is lined by 2 membrane layers called the peritoneum. The solution is left in the abdomen for a certain amount of time. There, it soaks up the waste products and toxins through the peritoneum. The fluid is drained from the abdomen, measured and discarded. There are 3 different types of peritoneal dialysis:
Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). This type does not need a machine. Exchanges, often referred to as passes, can be done 3 to 5 times a day during waking hours.
Continuous cyclic peritoneal dialysis (CCPD). This type requires a dialysis machine that can be used in the home. This type of dialysis is done automatically, even while you are asleep.
Intermittent peritoneal dialysis (IPD). IPD uses the same type of machine as CCPD, but treatments take longer. IPD can be done at home, but usually is done in the hospital.
Possible complications of peritoneal dialysis include an infection or inflammation of the peritoneum. This is called peritonitis. It causes fever and stomach pain.
A dietitian will help you plan your meals based on your doctor's orders. Generally:
- You may have special protein, salt, and fluid needs.
- You may have special potassium restrictions.
- You may need to cut calories. The sugar in the dialysate may cause weight gain.
Hemodialysis can be done at home or in a dialysis center or hospital. An access site is surgically made, usually in your arm. This involves joining an artery and a vein together. After access has been made, you will be connected to a large hemodialysis machine that drains the blood. The blood is bathed in a dialysate solution which removes waste substances and fluid. Then the clean blood is returned to your bloodstream.
Hemodialysis is usually done several times a week and lasts for 4 to 5 hours. During treatment you can read, write, sleep, talk, or watch TV.
At home, hemodialysis is done with the help of a partner, often a family member or friend. If you choose to do home hemodialysis, you and your partner will get training.
Possible complications of hemodialysis include muscle cramps and a sudden drop in blood pressure. This may cause you to feel dizzy or weak, or sick to your stomach.
By following the proper diet and taking medications, as prescribed by your doctor, you may be able to avoid complications. A dietitian will work with you to plan your meals, according to your doctor's orders. Generally:
- You may eat foods high in protein such as meat and chicken (animal proteins).
- You may need to limit foods containing potassium.
- You may need to limit the amount you drink.
- You may need to avoid salt.
- You may need to limit foods containing mineral phosphorus (such as milk, cheese, nuts, dried beans, and soft drinks).
Other treatment options may include:
- Medications (to help with growth, prevent bone density loss, and/or to treat anemia)
- Diuretic therapy (medications to increase urine output)
- Specific diet changes
- Kidney transplant
Complications of kidney failure
Because the kidneys have many functions, the complications of kidney failure can affect many body systems. Complications may include:
- Anemia (low red blood cell count)
- Problems with the heart and blood vessels
- Bone disease
- Pain in the bones, joints, and muscles
- Decreased mental function, including confusion and dementia
- Nerve damage in the arms and legs
- A greater risk of getting infections
- Poor nutrition
- Skin changes, including dryness and itching
Living with kidney failurePeople with kidney failure are living longer than ever. Dialysis treatment is not a cure for kidney failure, but will help you feel better and live longer. Over the years, kidney failure can cause other problems such as bone disease, high blood pressure, nerve damage, and anemia (having too few red blood cells). Discuss how to prevent and treat these problems with your health care provider.
When should I call my health care provider?If your symptoms get worse or you have new symptoms, let your health care provider know.
Key points about kidney failure
- Kidney failure is complete failure of the kidneys to regulate normal functions. This includes fluid balance, blood pressure, acid/base balance, electrolytes, red blood cell production, and excretion of metabolic toxins and wastes.
- The outlook is poor for people with kidney failure. As toxins and fluid build up, the disease can become life threatening.
- Treatment involves peritoneal and hemodialysis to replace the function of the kidneys.
- Kidney transplant may be an option for long term survival.
Next stepsTips to help you get the most from a visit to your health care provider:
- Before your visit, write down questions you want answered.
- Bring someone with you to help you ask questions and remember what your provider tells you.
- At the visit, write down the names of new medicines, treatments, or tests, and any new instructions your provider gives you.
- If you have a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose for that visit.
- Know how you can contact your provider if you have questions.