Kids' Headaches: The Diagnosis Is Difficult
Headaches aren't only for adults. Kids get them, too. By the time children reach high school age, most have experienced at least 1 headache, according to the National Headache Foundation.
There are 2 basic types of headaches. Primary headaches have the headache as the only symptom and it will stop once treated. Secondary headaches are caused by another condition and don’t usually go away until the condition is treated.
Primary headaches include tension-type and migraine headaches. Hundreds of conditions or circumstances can cause headaches. These can span the range from not harmful to very serious. They include dehydration, sleep deprivation, infections, head injury, meningitis, brain aneurysm, and tumor. Fortunately, most headaches in kids are not caused by these problems, but by tension.
Your pediatrician can determine what kind of headache your child has. The health care provider will need to talk to both you and your child to determine whether the headache has an emotional side to it. He or she may also do a neurological exam.
This is the most common type of headache in children, and the most likely causes are emotional upsets or stress. Your child may describe the pain as widespread or like a tight band around the head. This type of headache does not usually cause nausea and vomiting.
Tension headaches are almost always related to stressful situations at school, competition, family friction, or too many demands by parents. The health care provider needs to also determine whether anxiety or depression may be present.
A migraine headache is sometimes one-sided and throbbing. It is occasionally accompanied by nausea and vomiting. Children who have a family history of migraines have a greater chance of developing migraines themselves.
Fortunately, migraines may disappear in some children several years after they appear. However, many children who develop migraine headaches will go on to have them during the rest of their lives. Research has shown that symptoms will have occurred in about a fourth of migraine sufferers before the age of 5. And in about half before the age of 20.
It is important to realize that migraine may happen after a head injury, especially after injury in sporting activities like football and baseball. The child will usually recover fully over time.
These headaches require immediate medical attention:
A headache in a child who has had a blow to the head or a recent history of head trauma. This is especially true if the headache is steadily getting worse.
A headache with fever, nausea or vomiting, confusion, significant sleepiness or loss of consciousness after the headache starts, stiff neck, or skin rash.
A headache that comes on suddenly and seems to be the worst headache the child can possibly imagine having. Watch for this, especially if the child has a history of never having headaches.