Females have two ovaries. They are found on each side of the uterus, just below the opening of the fallopian tubes. These are the tubes that extend from the uterus to near the ovaries.
The ovaries contain the egg cells needed for reproduction. They also make the hormones, estrogen and progesterone. These affect many of the female characteristics and reproductive functions. Estrogens also play a big role in bone health and strength. The levels of estrogen and progesterone are controlled by certain hormones made by the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland in the brain.
A male has two testes. These oval-shaped organs hang suspended in a pouch of skin (scrotum) outside the male body.
The testes are where sperm is made. They also make testosterone and other hormones. These hormones affect many of the male characteristics and support sperm production. Testosterone also plays a big role in bone health and strength. The level of testosterone is controlled by certain hormones made by the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland in the brain.