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The pedicled TRAM flap is a well-established operation for breast reconstruction where skin, fat, and muscle tissue from the abdomen are utilized to reconstruct the breast. Blood flow to the transferred abdominal tissues is retained through connections between the underlying abdominal muscle tissue and the overlying abdominal skin and fat.

The advantage of this operation is that it does not require microsurgery, which reduces operative times and may make the transfer of this tissue safer in certain patients.

The pedicled TRAM flap is an excellent option in many patients. It is important to know, however, that in the appropriate candidates, other, more specialized techniques now exist that may offer less weakness to the abdominal wall, better outcomes in smokers, and alternative sites for taking tissue for a breast reconstruction. Newer innovations in breast reconstruction include:

To learn which form of breast reconstruction is right for you, review photos, or testimonials please visit us online at

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